How to Fix Forward Head Posture (Nerd Neck) - Posture Direct (2023)

What is Forward Head Posture?

Forward Head Posture (FHP) is where the position of the head is in front of the mid line of the torso.

(It is also referred to as Nerd Neck, Poked Head, Forward Neck Posture and Text Neck.)

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Ideally – the ear canal should be aligned with the mid line of the torso.

It involves a combination of lower neck flexionand upper neck extension.

This results in the flattening or loss of the natural curve in the lower Cervical spine.

What causes Forward head posture?

It’s all about your postural habits.

Think about how you sit when you you use computer, mobile phone, driving your car etc:

Are you sitting up tall?…. Or are you letting your head poke forward?

The body will get used to the positions that you choose to place it in.

Over time – certain muscles will tend to weaken and others get tight.

This muscular imbalance can eventuate into a Forward Head Posture.

What muscles are involved?

There is an imbalance involving all of the following muscles:

(Note: If you are not sure where the following muscles are located, feel free to look them up on Google.)

a) Overactive and/or Tight muscles:

  • Anterior Scalene
  • Sternocleidomastoid
  • Anterior neck muscles (Lower Cervical Spine)
  • Sub-Occipital muscles
  • Splenius Capitis/Cervicis
  • Semispinalis
  • Longissimus
  • Anterior Upper Trapezius
  • Upper Levator Scapulae

b) What muscles are weak in Forward Head Posture?

Deep Neck Flexors:

  • Longus Capitis
  • Longus Colli

Lower Cervical Extensors:

  • Multifidus
  • Erector Spinae
    • (Lower Cervical Spine)

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How to tell if you have Forward head posture

Here are 3 different tests to determine if your head is poking forwards.

a) Forward Head Posture Test

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Instructions:

  • Place your back completelyflat againstthe wall.
  • Make sure that your pelvis and shoulder blades are in contact with the wall.
  • Do not over arch your lower back.
  • Do not tilt your head backwards.
  • Whilst standing in this position, does the back of your head naturally come in contact with the wall?

Results: If the back of your head does not naturally come into contact with the wall, then you likely have a Forward Head Posture.

b)Side profile

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Instructions:

  • Take a side profile photo of yourself.
  • Draw a line down the mid line of your torso.
  • Draw a line down from your ear canal.
    • This line should be parallel to the mid line of the torso.

Results: If the line from the ear canal is in front of the line of the torso, then you likely have a Forward Head Posture.

c)X-Ray scan

Ask your doctor for a X-Ray scan showing the lateral view of the Cervical spine.

Craniovertebral Angle: This is the angle formed by the lines from the Tragus (part of the ear), C7 Spinous Process and a horizontal line that passes through the C7 vertebra.

A normal value would be considered at approximately 50 degrees.

What is the consequence of a Forward Head Posture?

This is a list of the main symptoms associated with this postural issue:

Symptoms:

  • Neck Pain at base of the Skull
  • Headaches and Dizziness
  • Cervical Radiculopathy
  • Ineffective breathing technique
  • Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) issues
  • Impaired balance

Forward Head Posture Exercises

Recommendation: Perform the following exercises 2-3/week to gain a sense of what each exercise feels like.

Over time – assess how your body responds and adjust frequency and intensity accordingly.

1.Neck releases

The tight muscles that are holding your head in the forward position will need to be released first.

(Video) FIX Forward Head Posture! (Daily Corrective Routine)

a) Sub-Occipital/Posterior Neck

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Instructions:

  • Place a massage ball under the back of your neck.
    • Do not place it directly under the spine.
    • You are aiming for the muscles on either side of the spine.
  • Apply an appropriate amount of pressure onto the massage ball.
  • Gently rotate your head from side to side to emphasize certain areas.
  • Make sure to cover the muscle from the base of the skull to the base of the neck.
  • Continue for 2-3 minutes on each side.

Alternatively: If you do not have a massage ball, you can use your fingers to apply pressure to the same areas.

Note: If you start to feel dizziness or experience more pain, reduce the amount of pressure that you are applying.

b) Sternocleidomastoid

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Instructions:

  • Locate the Sternocleidomastoid muscle.
    • (Use Google if you are not sure where it is.)
  • You should be able to feel a prominent band of muscle on each side of the neck. (see above)
  • Donot to press too deep asyou may hit other sensitive structures of the neck.
  • Gently massage these muscles with a pinch grip.
  • Make sure to cover the entire length of the muscle.
  • Duration: 1 minute per side.

(For more stretches like this, see post: Sternocleidomastoid Stretches.)

c) Side of neck release

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Instructions:

  • Place the flat part of your fist at the bottom of the side of your neck.
  • Make sure that you are not pressing onto the structures at the front of the neck.
  • Apply a gentle sliding pressure up towards behind the ear region.
  • Repeat5upwards strokes on either side of the neck.

2.Neck stretches

Stretching out the tight muscles will give the opportunity for the head to adopt the correct posture.

a) Sub-Occipital (Upper Cervical Spine)

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Instructions:

  • Place your hand at the front of your chin and the other at the back of your head.
  • Apply a force to the front of your chin as to gently glide the chin backwards.
  • Whilst maintaining this pressure, proceed to pull your head forward/down.
  • Aim to feel a stretch at the back of your Upper neck.
  • Hold for 30 seconds.
  • Repeat 3 times.

b) Posterior neck (Middle neck)

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Instructions:

  • Gently tuck your chin in.
  • Look down.
  • Place both hands behind your head and pull your head downwards.
  • Aim to feel the stretch at the back of your Middle neck.
  • Hold for 30 seconds.
  • Repeat 3 times.

c) Front of Neck (Lower Cervical Spine)

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Instructions:

  • Gently tuck your chin in.
  • Slowly look upwards.
  • Do not arch your lower back.
  • Aim to feel a stretch at the front of your neck.
  • Hold for 30 seconds.

d) Sternocleidomastoid

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Instructions:

  • Gently tuck your chin in.
  • Rotate your head towards the side that you want to stretch.
  • Tilt your head to the sideawayfrom the side you want to stretch.
  • Use your hand to pull your head further into the tilt.
  • Aim to feel a stretch on the side of your neck.
  • Hold for 30 seconds.
  • Repeat 3 times.
  • Do both sides.

e)Anterior scalene

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Instructions:

  • Look up and rotate your head to the side.
  • Place your hand on thecollar bone on the opposite side to whichyou have rotated to.
  • Pull the skin on the collar bone downwards.
  • Tilt your head to the side.
  • Hold for 30 seconds.
  • Repeat 3 times.
  • Do both sides.

3. Improve Joint mobility

If the joints in your cervical spine are very stiff, this may limit the required neck movements to perform the following exercises effectively.

a)Decompress the sides of the neck

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Instructions:

  • Slightly lower your head downwards.
  • Tilt your head to the side.
    • (“Ear to the shoulder”)
  • Place your hand on the side of your head and apply a gentle pressure.
  • Aim to feel a stretch on the side of your neck.
  • Avoid any pinching sensation on the side you are pulling your head towards.
  • Hold for 30 seconds.
  • Repeat 3times.
  • Do both sides.

b) Chin tuck with over pressure

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Instructions:

  • Lie on the floor with your knees bent.
    • Use a thin pillow if required.
  • Tuck your chin in.
  • Place your hands on your chin apply a downward pressure.
  • Hold for 5 seconds.
  • Repeat 10 times.

c) Neck mobility

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Instructions:

(Video) How To Fix Forward Head Posture - 3 Easy Exercises (From a Chiropractor)

  • Tuck your chin.
    • (think about the movement as a book sliding back into the shelf)
  • Whilst maintaining this chin tucked position, proceed to look up/down.
  • Ensure that you do not poke your chin out excessively during the movement.
  • As you look upwards, you should feel a “bruisy” (… but not painful!) sensation at the base of your neck.
    • If it is painful – decrease the amount of looking upwards.
  • Repeat 30 times.

d)Self neck traction

(This is a great way to decompress your neck.)

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Instructions:

  • Tie a resistance band to a stationary object. (Height: ~3-4 feet)
  • Lie on the floor with your knees bent.
  • Wrap the band under the base of the skull.
  • Whilst still holding the band with your hands, slowly shuffle your body away from the anchor point.
  • Let go and let the band pull your head.
  • Move as far away until you can feel a stretch at the back of your neck.
  • Completely relax.
  • Hold for 1 minute.

Note: Place a small towel between your head and the band to prevent your hair from being pulled.

4. Chin nods

The following exercises will target the Deep Neck Flexors. These muscles are responsible for maintaining the correct posture of the head and neck.

a) Chin nods (head supported)

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Instructions:

  • Lie down on the floor with your head supported with a thin pillow.
  • Gently perform a chin nod.
    • (as if to say ‘yes’).
  • Aim to feel a gentle contraction in the muscles at the back of your throat.
  • Relax your neck muscles as much as possible. You should not feel the muscles at the front of your throat tense up.
    • You can try flattening your tongue to the roof your your mouth to help reduce the tension in the neck.
  • Hold for 5 seconds.
  • Repeat 30 times.

Note: If this exercise is too difficult, start with using a thicker pillow.

b) Chin nod holds (sitting)

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Instructions:

  • Sit up right.
  • Slightly nod your chin downwards.
  • Place a closed fist underneath your chin.
  • Gently push your chin down onto your fist
  • Hold for 30 seconds.
  • Aim to feel a gentle contraction at the back of your throat.
  • Repeat 2-3 times.

5. Chin Tuck

The following exercises will help position your head into the correct alignment.

a) Chin tuck

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Instructions:

  • Sit upright
  • Gently tuck your chin in.
    • “Make a double chin.”
    • If you experience discomfort as you do this, fixate your gaze slightly lower and re-try tucking the chin in.
  • Aim tofeel a gentle lengthening sensation at the back of your neck.
  • Make sure to keep your eyes and jaw leveland move the head horizontally backwards.
    • Think of the movement like a book sliding back into the shelf.
  • Hold for 5 seconds.
  • Repeat 30 times.

As this exercise becomes easier, challenge yourself with the followingexerciseprogressions…

b) Chin tuck (against gravity)

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Instructions:

  • Lie down on your stomach with head off the edge of a bed.
  • Gently tuck your chin in.
  • (Since you are moving your head against gravity, there is a greater challenge on your muscles.)
  • Aim to hold for 5 seconds.
  • Repeat 10 times.

c) Chin tuck (with resistance band)

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Instructions:

  • Apply a resistance band around the back of your neck.
  • Pull the band forwards as to increase the tension on the band.
  • Proceed to do a chin tuck against the resistance band.
  • Hold for 5 seconds.
  • Repeat 20 times.

6. Chin tuck and Nod

The next step is to combine the Chin Tuck and Nod together.

a) Chin tuck/nod with head lift

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Instructions:

  • Lie down on your back with your knees bent.
    • (Support your head on a pillow if required.)
  • Gently flatten your tongue to the roof of your mouth throughout the exercise.
    • This will help engage the right muscles in the neck.
  • Tuck your chin in.
  • Nod your chin downwards.
  • Whilst keeping your chin in the nodded position, lift your head off the ground.
    • Imagine you are gently squashing an apple between your lower jaw and throat throughout movement.
  • Lift as high or as low as you are comfortable.
  • Aim to feel the contraction of the muscles at the front of your neck.
  • Hold for 5-10 seconds.
  • Repeat 10 times.
  • Make sure that you DO NOT let your chin jut forward as you lift your head.
  • Note: If you find this exercise difficult, support the weight of your head with your finger tips.

7. Elongate your neck!

As you go throughout your day, it is important to practice maintaining your head in a more optimal position.

The aim is to:

  • Elongate your neck
  • Reduce compression in the Cervical Spine
  • Eliminate over-activity of muscles

To achieve this, think about holding your head this way:

“With your chin held in a slightly tucked in position, imagine your head as a balloon that is floating away from your shoulders.”

Aim to keep your neck muscles as relaxed as possible.

Note: Do NOT force your head into a position that it can not naturally hold with minimum effort.

8. Forward Head Posture and breathing

The muscles which are predominantly responsible for pulling the head into the forward position are the Sternocleidomastoid and Scalene.

These muscles are also accessory muscles to your breathing.

During relaxed breathing, it is ideal to have your diaphragm muscle as your main breathing muscle.

However, with breathing inefficiencies, these accessory muscles will tend to be over active… which then can lead to your head poking forwards.

(Video) NERD NECK AND ROUNDED SHOULDERS WORKOUT (Fix Forward Head Posture) beginners pilates workout

Diaphragmatic breathing

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Instructions:

  • Assume the position as shown above.
    • Use a pillow for your neck if required.
  • Remember to keep your neckcompletely relaxed.
    • Gently flatten your tongue up to the roof of your mouth.
    • Keep your mouth closed throughout this exercise.
  • Breathe in: Breathe and expand into your rib cage without flaring out the bottom of the ribs at the front.
    • (“imagine a ring around the lower portion of your rib cage expanding in a 360 degrees direction.”)
  • Breathe out: Slowly push out ALL of the air out of your lungs
    • Your lower ribs should depress and lower back flatten against the floor.
  • Repeat 5 times.

9. Extra tips

Here 5 simple tips that you can implement to improve your posture.

a) Use your mobile phone properly

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Optimize your head position by bringing your mobile closer up to your eye level.

(Of course – I don’t expect you to use the phone in this position absolutely 100% of the time.)

b) Change position often

Avoid staying in the same posture for too long.

Move in and out of different positions as much as you can.

Sustaining one position over a long period of time may lock your posture into position!

c) Optimize workstation ergonomics

It is next to impossible to sit with good posture if your work stationis not properly set up.

It is imperative to set up the following in the correct position relative to your body:

  • Position of the computer screen
  • Height of the table
  • Height of the chair
  • Position of mouse and keyboard.

For more information – I have written a free e-book which goes through everything that you need to know.

FREE E-book: How To Set Up Your Workstation.

d) Avoid wearing a heavy backpack

Wearing a heavy backpack will tend to pull your upper torso forwards.

This will lead to the head poking forwards.

e) Minimize breathing through the mouth

Breathing with an open mouth tends to encourage the over-activity of the muscles that are responsible for Nerd Neck.

Keep that mouth closed!

If you have blocked sinuses that make it difficult to breathe through the nose, I would encourage you to get this sorted out as well.

f) Set up your car seat

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Many head rests tend to significantly push your head forwards.

(…which I presume is a safety feature of the car?)

It will be challenging… but try your best to adjust your seat to promote a better posture.

10. Address other areas of posture

If you have persisted with the above exercises for at least 3-6 months and have seen minimal improvement in your head position, you may need to consider addressing any of the following postural issues:

a) Dowager’s Hump

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The Dowager’s hump is an enlarged prominencethat is formed at the lower region of the neck.

(… it’s a big bump that sits at the base of your neck!)

If you have this, it is likely a major factor that is contributing to your Forward Head Posture.

(… and is possibly limiting the effectiveness of the exercises.)

For a detailed guide on how to address this issue:

See post: Dowager’s Hump Exercises

(Video) Fix Forward Head Posture FAST! (5 Easy Steps)

b) Hunchback Posture (Thoracic Kyphosis)

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If the thoracic spine (upper back) is hunched forwards, it can cause the head to poke forwards as well.

For a detailed guide on how to address this issue:

See post: Hunchback Posture

c) Rounded Shoulders

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HavingRounded Shouldersis when the resting shoulder position is infrontof the mid line of the torso.

Rounded shoulders can pull your head forwards into the Nerd Neck position.

For a detailed guide on how to address this issue:

See post: Fix Rounded Shoulders

11. Common Questions

Feel free to leave me a question in the comment section if you need any further clarification with anything mentioned on this blog post.

a) Is Forward Head Posture correctible?

Yes – it definitely is!

(… as long as the joints in your Cervical spine have not fused into position.)

c) How long does it take to fix Forward Head Posture?

You should see some improvements in your head position after 6-12 weeks of performing the recommended exercises on a consistent basis.

In some of you – you may even see immediate improvements in your posture!

c) How to correct Forward Head Posture whilst sleeping?

When sleeping on your back – do not use an overly thick pillow as this will push your head forwards.

At the same time – you do not want the pillow to be too thin either as this will provide no support for your neck. (…and may even cause more issues!)

General guideline: Use the thinnest pillow possible whilst still having your neck comfortably supported.

Conclusion

When fixing Forward Head Posture (Nerd Neck), I suspect a few of you may get a little bit discouraged in the beginning.

(.. and I completely get it!)

Your posture might not change as quickly as you’d like it to.

The plain truth is: It takes time to fix your poor posture.

My intention with this blog post was to provide you with everything that you will ever need to know to completely address this issue.

Be consistent. Stay motivated. And perform the exercises!

I hope it serves you well.

All the best!

What to do next

1. Any questions?… (Leave me a comment down below.)

2. Come join me on the Facebook page. Let’s keep in touch!

3. Start doing the exercises!

About Mark Wong:

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Mark is a Physiotherapist who has been helping his patients fix their posture for the past 11 years. He created the Posture Direct blog in 2015 with the goal of helping people fix their own posture.

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Disclaimer: The content presented on this blog post is not intended to be used as a substitute for professional advice, diagnosis or treatment. It exists for informational purpose only. Use of the content is at your sole risk. For more information: Medical disclaimer.

(Video) How to Fix Forward Head | Slumped Posture (PERMANENTLY!)

FAQs

Can nerd neck be corrected? ›

By continuously adjusting specific joints in the spine and neck chiropractors can help to restore posture and normal motion. Combining our tips for fixing nerd neck with routine chiropractic sessions will greatly benefit your journey to better health and well-being.

Can forward neck posture be corrected? ›

Studies show that specific stretching and strengthening exercises and manual therapy by a chiropractor or physical therapist can help restore normal alignment of your head and neck and relieve side effects. Other possible causes of FHP include: driving hunched over the wheel for long periods.

How do I fix my forward head posture fast? ›

We see very often in my office. And it's something i prefer not to see but there's easy ways to

Can sleeping without a pillow fix forward head posture? ›

Sleeping without a pillow can keep your head flat. This may reduce some stress on your neck and promote better alignment.

How do I get my neck to be straight? ›

Chin tucks are one of the key exercises recommended to help keep the head aligned above the spine. Stand with your upper back against a wall, feet shoulder-width apart. Face forward, tuck your chin down, and pull your head back until it meets the wall. Hold the stretch for 5 seconds before resting, and repeat 10 times.

How long does it take to fix neck posture? ›

“But making a habit of good posture may take some time,” says Dr. Bang. As with any other exercise routine, it takes about four to six weeks to see real change.

How long does it take to correct neck curve? ›

This evidence suggests an average increase in cervical lordosis of up to 18° in 10–14 weeks with 30–40 treatments with use of cervical extension traction as part of a multimodal rehabilitation program. This case demonstrated a 27° improvement in cervical lordosis after 30 treatments over an 18-week period.

Do neck pillows help with nerd neck? ›

8. Try a nerd neck pillow. If sleep is a literal pain in the neck, time to consider a nerd neck pillow to get a better night of sleep. This type of pillow provides support that keeps the cervical spine aligned properly: not too high, and not too low.

How long does it take to fix forward posture? ›

Cut down on activities that have led to poor posture, too. Take breaks from computer and TV time, and exercise more. "In six to 12 weeks," says Doshi, "you'll see an improvement in your posture."

How long does it take to improve forward head posture? ›

“Thirty days can make a real difference in improving posture, because research shows that it takes 3 to 8 weeks to establish a routine.

What muscles are weak in forward head posture? ›

Weak and lengthened muscles in Forward head posture and rounded shoulders are deep neck flexors which include longus capitis and longus coli and weak scapular stabilizers and retractors which include Rhomboids and middle, lower trapezius, Teres Minor and Infraspinatus.

How should I sleep to fix my posture? ›

On your back.

Sleeping on your back may be one of the best positions for improving your sleeping posture. It promotes better alignment and reduces the pressure on your arms and legs. People with neck or back pain, especially in the lower back, find it to be the most comfortable.

Why is my neck not straight? ›

Your neck naturally curves forward. If you're injured or your neck is not aligned properly, that natural curve can flatten out. In some cases, it can even curve in the opposite direction. If your neck stays that way, it's known as flat neck syndrome or military neck.

Can a chiropractor fix your forward head posture? ›

A chiropractor can help you correct poor posture such as forward head translation or slouching and realign your spine to assure that the body is functioning optimally.

What is the healthiest sleeping position? ›

Specifically, sleeping on the side or back is considered more beneficial than sleeping on the stomach. In either of these sleep positions, it's easier to keep your spine supported and balanced, which relieves pressure on the spinal tissues and enables your muscles to relax and recover.

How do you pop a neck hump? ›

3 Ways to Crack Your Neck Safely - YouTube

How can I get my body aligned without a chiropractor? ›

Keep your posture in mind, even if you're taking it easy.
  1. Moving regularly is key! Don't sit for too long, even in an ergonomic office chair. ...
  2. Keep both of your feet flat on the floor. Consider a footrest if necessary.
  3. Keep your back aligned against the back of your chair. Avoid leaning forward or slouching.
28 Jun 2020

What exercises fix posture? ›

neck stretches – gently lower your left ear towards your left shoulder; hold for 10 to 15 deep breaths, then repeat on opposite side. neck rotations – slowly turn your chin towards 1 shoulder; hold for 10 to 15 deep breaths, then repeat on opposite side.

Do it yourself fix posture? ›

How to Make an At-home Posture Corrector - YouTube

Can a curved neck be straightened? ›

The forward curve of the spine seen in cervical kyphosis is reversible. Treatment with physical therapy can be effective in mild cases. If you have more severe kyphosis, surgery can correct the curve in your spine and relieve symptoms. Cervical kyphosis can cause pain, disability and a decreased quality of life.

What causes nerd neck? ›

Tension in the subocciptal muscles (base of the skull) and pec minor muscles (chest) are at the root of nerd neck. Applying prolonged pressure for at least 30 – 90 seconds to these muscles will help to train the brain to release the tension.

How do I stop my head from being forward? ›

FIX Forward Head Posture! (Daily Corrective Routine) - YouTube

What problems can forward head posture cause? ›

The symptoms of forward head posture can be varied and can include, neck pain, headaches, breathing difficulties, muscle tightness in the neck and shoulders and pain between the shoulders blades. Poor posture can lead to changes in the neck over time.

Does forward head posture cause double chin? ›

Many people may not realize it, but poor posture can also lead to a double chin. From looking down at your phone to sitting slumped over, spending much of your time with your head bent in this position can cause muscles in the chin and neck to weaken. Over time, this can also cause the skin to become more lax.

Can you straighten a neck hump? ›

"To correct the hump, both need to be functioning correctly." The best part? You can do chin tucks while watching TV. Here's how: "Drop your chin down and push it into your neck—think about giving yourself a double chin, then lift it back up. Repeat 12 times, take a short rest, and repeat the process three times."

What causes nerd neck? ›

Tension in the subocciptal muscles (base of the skull) and pec minor muscles (chest) are at the root of nerd neck. Applying prolonged pressure for at least 30 – 90 seconds to these muscles will help to train the brain to release the tension.

Can a curved neck be straightened? ›

The forward curve of the spine seen in cervical kyphosis is reversible. Treatment with physical therapy can be effective in mild cases. If you have more severe kyphosis, surgery can correct the curve in your spine and relieve symptoms. Cervical kyphosis can cause pain, disability and a decreased quality of life.

Can sleeping without pillow help neck hump? ›

While research is limited, anecdotal reports show that sleeping without a pillow can help reduce neck and back pain for some sleepers. Stomach sleepers are generally best suited for going pillowless, because the lower angle of the neck encourages better spinal alignment in this position.

Are neck humps permanent? ›

Not only can Dowager's Hump be treated, for some people, it can be cured altogether. There are also exercises you can do that will help you prevent the hump in the first place, and help reverse it once it has formed. One exercise that will help is the Hump Straightener. Instructions with images can be found here.

What exercises reduce neck hump? ›

Easy Fix for the Neck Hump! (With FREE Exercise Sheet!) - YouTube

Why is my neck not straight? ›

Your neck naturally curves forward. If you're injured or your neck is not aligned properly, that natural curve can flatten out. In some cases, it can even curve in the opposite direction. If your neck stays that way, it's known as flat neck syndrome or military neck.

How long does it take to fix posture? ›

Cut down on activities that have led to poor posture, too. Take breaks from computer and TV time, and exercise more. "In six to 12 weeks," says Doshi, "you'll see an improvement in your posture."

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Author: Saturnina Altenwerth DVM

Last Updated: 12/07/2022

Views: 5682

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Name: Saturnina Altenwerth DVM

Birthday: 1992-08-21

Address: Apt. 237 662 Haag Mills, East Verenaport, MO 57071-5493

Phone: +331850833384

Job: District Real-Estate Architect

Hobby: Skateboarding, Taxidermy, Air sports, Painting, Knife making, Letterboxing, Inline skating

Introduction: My name is Saturnina Altenwerth DVM, I am a witty, perfect, combative, beautiful, determined, fancy, determined person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.